DOS Command II

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COPY

Copies one or more files to another location. 

SYNTAX

COPY [/A | /B] source [/A | /B] [+ source [/A | /B] [+ …]] [destination] [/A | /B]] [/V] [/Y | /-Y]

  • source Specifies the file or files to be copied.
  • /A Indicates an ASCII text file.
  • /B Indicates a binary file.
  • destination Specifies the directory and/or filename for the new file(s).
  • /V Verifies that new files are written correctly.
  • /Y Suppresses prompting to confirm you want to overwrite an existing destination file.
  • /-Y Causes prompting to confirm you want to overwrite an existing destination file.

To append files, specify a single file for destination, but multiple files for source (using wildcards or file1+file2+file3 format).

EXAMPLES

copy *.* a:

      – This would copy all files in the current directory to the floppy disk in drive a:

copy autoexec.bat c:windows

      – Copies

autoexec.bat

      from the current directory to the

Windows

      directory of the C: drive.

copy file1.txt+file2.txt+file3.txt newfile.txt /v

      – This would add together (concatenate)

file1.txt, file2.txt

      and

file3.txt

      and store the results in

newfile.txt

    , then verify that it copied correctly.

DELETE

Deletes one or more files.

SYNTAX

DEL [drive:][path]filename [/P]

  • [drive:][path]filename – Specifies the file(s) to delete. Specify multiple files by using wildcards.
  • /P – Prompts for confirmation before deleting each file.
EXAMPLES

del test.tmp

      – Deletes

test.tmp

      from the directory you are currently in (if it exists).

del c:windowstest.tmp

      – Deletes

test.tmp

      from the

C:Windows

      directory (if it exists).

del c:windowstemp*.* /P

      – Deletes all files in the

C:Windowstemp

    directory, and requires confirmation for each file.

XCOPY

Xcopy is a powerful version of the copy command with additional features. It has the ability to move files, directories and even whole drives from one destination to another. It also can preserve file attributes and long file names.
Note: XCOPY is in all versions of Windows, but may not run unless it is located in the command Path. Please see the note on Paths above. The actual file is called xcopy.exe and is located on Windows 98 and ME in the C:WindowsCommand directory on Windows NT and 2000 in the C:Winntsystem32 and on Windows XP in the C:Windowssystem32 directory.

SYNTAX

XCOPY source [destination] [/A | /M] [/D[:date]] [/P] [/S [/E]] [/W] [/C] [/I] [/Q] [/F] [/L] [/H] [/R] [/T] [/U] [/K] [/N]

  • source – Specifies the file(s) to copy.
  • destination – Specifies the location and/or name of new files.
  • /A – Copies files with the archive attribute set, doesn’t change the attribute.
  • /M – Copies files with the archive attribute set, turns off the archive attribute.
  • /D:date – Copies files changed on or after the specified date. If no date is given, copies only those files whose source time is newer than the destination time.
  • /P Prompts you before creating each destination file.
  • /S Copies directories and subdirectories except empty ones.
  • /E Copies directories and subdirectories, including empty ones.
  • /W Prompts you to press a key before copying.
  • /C Continues copying even if errors occur.
  • /I If destination does not exist and copying more than one file, assumes that destination must be a directory.
  • /Q Does not display file names while copying.
  • /F Displays full source and destination file names while copying.
  • /L Displays files that would be copied.
  • /H Copies hidden and system files also.
  • /R Overwrites read-only files.
  • /T Creates directory structure, but does not copy files. Does not include empty directories or sub directories. /T /E includes empty directories and sub directories.
  • /U Updates the files that already exist in destination.
  • /K Copies attributes. Normal xcopy will reset read-only attributes.
  • /Y Overwrites existing files without prompting.
  • /-Y Prompts you before overwriting existing files.
  • /N Copy using the generated short names.
EXAMPLES

xcopy h:*.* /a /e /k

      – Copies everything located on the H drive to the current drive.

xcopy c:windowsdesktop c:desktop /a /e /f /h /k

      – Copies all files and folders in the

C:WindowsDesktop

      folder to the

C:Desktop

    folder.

DELTREE

Deletes a directory and all the subdirectories and files in it.
Note: DELTREE is in all versions of Windows with the exception of Windows NT, 2000 and XP, but may not run unless it is located in the command path. Please see the note on Paths above. The actual file is called deltree.exe and is located in the C:WindowsCommand directory.

SYNTAX

DELTREE [/Y] [drive:]path [[drive:]path[…]]

  • /Y – Suppresses prompting to confirm you want to delete the subdirectory.
  • [drive:]path – Specifies the name of the directory you want to delete. More then one path can be specified.

Note: Use DELTREE cautiously. Every file and subdirectory within the specified directory will be deleted. Once deleted you cannot recover the information.

EXAMPLES

deltree c:windowsfake010

      = Deletes the

fake010

    directory and everything in it.

MOVE

Moves files and renames files and directories.

SYNTAX

To move one or more files: MOVE [/Y | /-Y] [drive:][path]filename1[,…]destination
To rename a directory: MOVE [/Y | /-Y] [drive:][path]dirname1 dirname2 [drive:][path]

  • [drive:][path]filename1 – Specifies the location and name of the file or files you want to move. (Multiple files separated by a comma)
  • [drive:][path]Destination – Specifies the new location of the file. Destination can consist of a drive letter and colon, a directory name, or a combination.
  • [drive:][path]dirname1 – Specifies the directory you want to rename.
  • dirname2 [drive:][path] – Specifies the new name of the directory.
  • /Y – Suppresses prompting to confirm creation of a directory or overwriting of the destination.
  • /-Y Causes prompting to confirm creation of a directory or overwriting of the destination.
EXAMPLES
      < strong>move c:windowstemp*.* c:temp- Moves all files from the

C:Windowstemp

      folder to the

C:temp

      folder.

move /Y c:temp temp2

      – Moves the

C:temp

      directory and all contents to the

C:temp2

    directory and suppress confirmation.

REN

Renames a file/directory or files/directories.

SYNTAX

REN [drive:][path][directoryname1 | filename1] [directoryname2 | filename2]
Note: you cannot specify a new drive or path for your destination. You can only rename files in the same directory

  • [drive:][path]filename1 – is the source file to rename.
  • [drive:][path]directoryname1 – is the source directory to rename.
  • filename2 – is the new name of the file.
  • directoryname2 – is the new name of the file.
EXAMPLES

ren c:chope hope

      – Rename the directory

chope

      to

hope

      .

ren *.txt *.bak

      – Rename all text files to files with .bak extension.

ren * 1_*

    – Rename all files to begin with 1_. The asterisk (*) in this example is a wild character this means all files.

MKDIR

Creates a directory.

SYNTAX

      MKDIR [drive:]path
    MD [drive:]path
EXAMPLES

md test

      – Creates a directory called

test

    inside the current directory.

RMDIR

Removes (deletes) a directory.

SYNTAX

    RMDIR [drive:]pathRD [drive:]path
EXAMPLES

rmdir c:test

      – Removes the

test

    directory if empty.

ATTRIB

Displays or changes file attributes such as read only, hidden, system, and archive. Attrib is necessary to use most other commands that do not work when some of these attributes are set.
Note: ATTRIB is in all versions of Windows, but may not run unless it is located in the command Path. Please see the note on Paths above. The actual file is called attrib.exe and is located on Windows 98 and ME in the C:WindowsCommand directory on Windows NT and 2000 in the C:Winntsystem32 and on Windows XP in the C:Windowssystem32 directory.

SYNTAX

ATTRIB [+R | -R] [+A | -A] [+S | -S] [+H | -H] [[drive:][path]filename] [/S]

  • + Sets an attribute.
  • – Clears an attribute.
  • R Read-only file attribute.
  • A Archive file attribute.
  • S System file attribute.
  • H Hidden file attribute.
  • /S Processes files in all directories in the specified path.
EXAMPLES

attrib autoexec.bat

      – Show the attributes of the

autoexec.bat

      file.

attrib +r autoexec.bat

      – Makes the

autoexec.bat

      so it cannot be modified until the read only attribute is taken off.

attrib +h config.sys

      – Hides

config.sys

      from a normal directory listing. However, hidden files are always visible to the attrib command.

attrib -h config.sys

    – This command does the opposite of the above command. Instead of hiding the file it will unhide it if currently hidden.

PING

Ping is used to determine if a connection exists between your computer, and another computer connected via TCP/IP. It sends small packets of information to the other computer, which are returned if the connection is found, and lost otherwise. Ping is a powerful utility to help determine network related problems.

SYNTAX

ping [-t] [-a] [-n count] [-l size] [-f] [-i TTL] [-v TOS] [-r count] [-s count] [[-j host-list] | [-k host-list]] [-w timeout] destination-list

  • -t – Pings the specified host until stopped.
    To see statistics and continue – type Control-Break;
    To stop – type Control-C.
  • -a – Resolve addresses to hostnames.
  • -n – count Number of echo requests to send.
  • -l – size Send buffer size.
  • -f – Set Don’t Fragment flag in packet.
  • -i TTL – Time To Live.
  • -v TOS – Type Of Service.
  • -r count – Record route for count hops.
  • -s count – Timestamp for count hops.
  • -j host-list – Loose source route along host-list.
  • -k host-list – Strict source route along host-list.
  • -w timeout – Timeout in milliseconds to wait for each reply.
EXAMPLES

ping localhost

      – Pings the localhost (127.0.0.1). This determines whether the ethernet card is able to send and receive data. Note that this does not send information over a network, so its main use is troubleshooting network card problems.

C:>ping localhost

Pinging 127.0.0.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 127.0.0.1: bytes=32 timeReply from 127.0.0.1: bytes=32 timeReply from 127.0.0.1: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=128
Reply from 127.0.0.1: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=128

Ping statistics for 127.0.0.1:
Packets: Sent=4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 0ms

ping xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx – Allows you to ping another computer where the x’s are located are where you would place the IP address of the computer you are attempting to ping. If this is not able to complete this should relay back an unsuccessful message (request timed out) which could be an indication of cable issues, network card issues, hub issue, etc.
ping helpdesk.doit.wisc.edu – can be used to see if computer is connected to the internet by sending a packet to a known web site, in this case the DoIT Helpdesk page.

C:>ping helpdesk.doit.wisc.edu

Pinging helpdesk.doit.wisc.edu[144.92.9.69] with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 144.92.9.69: bytes=32 time=2ms TTL=254
Reply from 144.92.9.69: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=254
Reply from 144.92.9.69: bytes=32 time=2ms TTL=254
Reply from 144.92.9.69: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=254

Ping statistics for 144.92.9.69:
Packets: Sent=4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 1ms, Maximum = 2ms, Average = 1ms

TRACERT

The tracert command is very similar to ping, and is used to visually see a network packet being sent and received and the amount of hops required for that packet to get to its destination. It shows you exactly how far a packet can go before it fails. This will help you know if the connection problem is close, or more towards the destination.

SYNTAX

tracert [-d] [-h maximum_hops] [-j host-list] [-w timeout] target_name

  • -d – Do not resolve addresses to hostnames.
  • -h – maximum_hops Maximum number of
    hops to search for target.
  • -j – host-list Loose source route along host-list.
  • -w – timeout Wait timeout milliseconds for each reply.

EXAMPLES
The following is an example when we used tracert on helpdesk.doit.wisc.edu. As you can see in the below example we had a very short list / time to get to its destination because we are so close to the web server.
C:>tracert helpdesk.doit.wisc.edu

Tracing route to helpdesk.doit.wisc.edu [144.92.9.69]
over a maximum of 30 hops:

12

Trace complete.

Here is another tracert to Google.com, a much further destination.

C:>tracert www.google.com

Tracing route to google.lb.google.com [216.239.37.100]
over a maximum of 30 hops:

1 2 3 4 5 40 ms 40 ms 40 ms aads.above.net [206.220.243.71]
6 40 ms 30 ms 51 ms core1-core2-oc3-2.ord1.above.net [209.249.0.129]
7 40 ms 50 ms 50 ms core2-ord1-oc48.ord2.above.net [208.185.0.202]
8 50 ms 60 ms 60 ms lga1-ord2-oc48.lga1.above.net [208.185.156.158]
9 80 ms 80 ms 81 ms iad1-lga1-oc48-2.iad1.above.net [216.200.127.61]
10 90 ms 80 ms 90 ms core2-iad1-oc48.iad4.above.net [208.185.0.134]
11 80 ms 90 ms 80 ms main2colo1-core2-oc12.iad4.above.net [208.185.070]
12 61 ms 70 ms 60 ms 64.124.113.173.available.google.com [64.124.113173]
13 60 ms 70 ms 60 ms 216.239.47.26
14 91 ms 100 ms 100 ms www.google.com [216.239.37.100]

Trace complete.